Vulvodynia is a chronic pain syndrome that affects the vulvar area and occurs without an identifiable cause. Symptoms typically include a feeling of burning or irritation. It has been established by the ISSVD that for the diagnosis to be made symptoms must last at least three months.The exact cause is unknown but is believed to involve a number of factors, including genetics, immunology, and possibly diet. Diagnosis is by ruling out other possible causes. This may or may not include a biopsy of the area.Treatment may involve a number of different measures; however, none is universally effective, and the evidence to support their effectiveness is often poor. Some of these measures include improved vulvar care, dietary changes, medications, counselling, and, if conservative treatment is not effective, surgery. It is estimated to affect up to 16% of women.