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The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), formally called Human gammaherpesvirus 4, is one of the nine known human herpesvirus types in the herpes family, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. EBV is a double-stranded DNA virus. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is the first identified oncogenic virus, which establishes permanent infection in humans. EBV causes infectious mononucleosis and is also tightly linked to many malignant diseases. Various vaccine formulations underwent testing in different animals or in humans. However, none of them was able to prevent EBV infection and no vaccine has been approved to date.The virus causes infectious mononucleosis ("mono" or "glandular fever"). It is also associated with various non-malignant, premalignant, and malignant Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases such as Burkitt lymphoma, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and Hodgkin's lymphoma; non-lymphoid malignancies such as gastric cancer and nasopharyngeal carcinoma; and conditions associated with human immunodeficiency virus such as hairy leukoplakia and central nervous system lymphomas. The virus is also associated with the childhood disorders of Alice in Wonderland syndrome and acute cerebellar ataxia and, by some evidence, higher risks of developing certain autoimmune diseases, especially dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjögren's syndrome. About 200,000 cancer cases globally per year are thought to be attributable to EBV. In 2022, a large study (population of 10 million over 20 years) suggested EBV as the leading cause of multiple sclerosis, with a recent EBV infection causing a 32-fold increase in the risk of developing multiple sclerosis.Infection with EBV occurs by the oral transfer of saliva and genital secretions. Most people become infected with EBV and gain adaptive immunity. In the United States, about half of all five-year-old children and about 90% of adults have evidence of previous infection. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection disappears. Many children who become infected with EBV display no symptoms or the symptoms are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. When infection occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35 to 50% of the time.EBV infects B cells of the immune system and epithelial cells. Once EBV's initial lytic infection is brought under control, EBV latency persists in the individual's memory B cells for the rest of their life.

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Speed 'n' DoubtUnknown Album2:58

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